Lymphoma: Causes, Symptoms, Types, Treatments
Lymphoma is a cancer type that develops in the body’s lymphatic system. The thymus gland, lymph nodes, and spleen make up the lymphatic system. It’s a part of your immune system which aids in the battle against illness and infection.
Lymphoma can start practically at any place since lymph tissue covers the entire body. Children and adults can both develop lymphoma. Read more to know about the causes, symptoms, types, and treatments for lymphoma:
Causes of Lymphoma
Remember that there is no gene for lymphoma that may be transferred from parent to child. Having said that, you may be at a slightly higher chance of developing lymphoma than someone who does not have any close relatives with lymphoma.
Some people may develop lymphoma as a result of contracting specific viruses and bacteria. The majority of people do not develop cancer after being exposed to these viruses and bacteria, so there is no need to panic. These potential cancer precursors are:
- Hepatitis C
- Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (HHV8)
- HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
- Helicobacter pylori (stomach ulcers causing bacteria)
- Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease causing bacteria)
- Campylobacter jejuni (Food poisoning bacteria)
Types of Lymphoma
According to estimates, there are more than 90 distinct lymphoma types, although they are all subsumed into one of the two main subtypes: Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Though they affect different kinds of lymphocyte cells, Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas are very similar.
Hodgkin’s lymphoma typically begins in white blood cells. The lymph nodes in the upper body, the neck, chest, and underarms are the parts affected by it. But non-Hodgkin lymphoma can begin in lymph nodes everywhere on the body, including those in the groin and abdomen.
There are several illness subtypes that fall within these two main categories. For instance, despite the fact that lymph nodes contain the majority of lymphocytes, lymphocytes can also be found in various body parts.
Any area of the body with lymphoid tissues and lymphocytes can develop lymphoma. When this happens, that area develops its own subtype of illness.
According to the rate of cancer’s growth and its location, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma symptoms can differ. Some of the symptoms are not unique to lymphoma and can be seen in a variety of conditions.
Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients frequently visit the doctor believing they have the flu, a cold, or a respiratory illness. Adults with both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas may experience comparable symptoms. These may incorporate:
- Intense swelling in the lymph nodes of the groin, armpit, or neck.
- High fever or chills
- Night sweats
- Unexplained loss of weight
- Coughing or breathing difficulties
Diagnosis for Lymphoma
The following tests and methods are used to identify lymphoma:
- Physical examination – The doctor examines the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes in your neck, underarm, and groin.
- The removal of a lymph node for testing – Your doctor can suggest removing all or part of a lymph node for laboratory testing during a lymph node biopsy surgery. The presence of lymphoma cells and the types of cells involved can be determined by sophisticated assays.
- Blood exams – Your doctor can learn more about the diagnosis of your condition through blood tests.
- Taking a bone marrow sample for analysis – A needle is inserted into your hipbone during a bone marrow aspiration to remove a sample of your bone marrow. It is examined to check for lymphoma cells.
- Imaging exams – Imaging tests may be suggested by your doctor to check for lymphoma symptoms in other parts of your body. MRI, CT and positron emission tomography (PET) are a few possible tests.
Treatment for Lymphoma
The type of lymphoma you have, how far it has spread, and whether you have symptoms will all influence the treatment. The kind and stage of your cancer, your general health, and your preferences will determine which lymphoma therapies are best for you.
Lymphoma Treatments Include:
- Active surveillance – It is one method of treating lymphoma. Some types of lymphoma progress very slowly. If the signs and symptoms of your lymphoma interfere with your regular activities, you and your doctor may decide to postpone treatment.
- Chemotherapy – Drugs are used in chemotherapy to kill rapidly proliferating cells, such as cancer cells. Depending on the particular medications you receive, the drugs may be given through a vein or may be swallowed as a pill.
- Radiation treatment – To kill cancer cells, radiation therapy employs intense energy beams like protons and X-rays.
- Bone marrow transplant – It is commonly referred to as a stem cell transplant. It involves suppressing your bone marrow with heavy doses of chemotherapy and radiation.
Looking After Yourself
Side effects from lymphoma treatment are possible. Discuss how to treat any symptoms you may be experiencing with your medical provider. Ask your doctor if you should make any dietary or activity modifications in order to feel better while receiving treatment.
If you are unsure of what foods to eat, seek advice from a dietician. Walking or swimming are two activities that can help you feel better while undergoing treatments like chemotherapy and radiation.
To help with pain relief, you could also try alternative therapies like meditation, biofeedback, or guided imagery.
Why Choose India for Lymphoma Treatment?
For people looking for affordable lymphoma treatment, India is the most popular option. Indian medical professionals, including specialists in cancer, have received training in top medical schools all over the world. So they have a wealth of expertise in treating lymphoma.
When compared to similar procedures and levels of care in other medically developed nations, lymphoma treatment cost in India is often far lower. The cost of treatment in India would be 30–50% less expensive than the the USA or the UK.
The price may change based on the patient’s diagnosis, patient medical conditions and various other factors like surgeon experience, hospitals etc.
As lymphoma advances, the likelihood of a positive result declines. For any cold or infection symptoms that persist over a long time, it is important to contact a doctor. The probability of successful treatment might be increased with early diagnosis and treatment.